Policy AnalysisDr. Mohanad Al-Azzawi *
“If I had only one hour to save the world, I would spend fifty-five minutes defining the problem, and only five minutes finding the solution.” -Albert Einstein
Public policies are defined as those (government activities or decisions necessary to implement programs aimed at achieving political, economic and social objectives. Government policies are usually formulated in the name of the public and governments are initiated by both the private and public sectors, and refer to what the government intends to do or refrain from doing). Policy analysis includes a set of renewable core pillars: collective interventions producing real instruments for different sectors, government methods and mechanisms in their public interventions, information required and methodological steps in policy-making, outcomes, evaluation and follow-up of policies.
A dynamic interaction is born within the framework of a specific intellectual, administrative, social, environmental and political system in which certain formal and informal elements are determined by the supreme leadership of the political system. The most important elements are creative leadership or creative authority – The constitutional framework of the state, the political philosophy of the state, and the three executive, legislative and judicial authorities as well as local governments and the fourth authority, the press, public opinion and administrative institutions.
The analysis of public policy applied science depends on the theoretical frameworks, and its success depends not only on the knowledge of the facts related to the problem or public policy but to take advantage of these facts to explain the problem in preparation for its solution, and analysis of public policy professional intellectual sport based on the use of research methods and descriptive study and interested in analyzing the reasons As a basis for understanding the general problem, experts have defined “policy analysis as an integrated holistic term means research aimed at identifying policy alternatives that can maximize the objectives required under the circumstances and environmental difficulties” Policy analysis is a method that helps the decision maker to choose the best alternative to solve a general problem of importance using rational scientific methods
We can define it as a government approach to defining strategic options, a collective intellectual process that examines in depth the problems, examines demands, analyzes the strategic environment of the government according to the available inputs, and produces inputs in the form of multiple alternatives, after identifying the strengths and weaknesses of each alternative. The decision on the best alternative, in order to increase government efficiency and effectiveness, is an intellectual process consistent with scientific research standards and methodologies.
Identify strategic options
Strategic orientations or options are determined by the supreme leadership of the state, a serious attempt to paint a picture of the future in line with the current data of the state’s identity and policy reflecting its thought and philosophy in governance, and in accordance with its effort to uncover the multiple possibilities for the future, Strategic options mean finding compelling answers to pressing questions:
What is the future goal of the state?
What systems and means do you use to achieve the goal
What are the governmental possibilities and resources
What is the cost and what are the alternatives or options that have been identified
What environmental determinants or potential determinants might prevent some options from being implemented
Stages of policy analysis
Phase I: Diagnosis of the problem
Phase II: Integration of information
Phase III: Exploring possible alternatives
Phase IV: Evaluation of Alternatives
Phase V: Identify the best alternative
Phase VI: Application of the selected alternative
Successful countries use contexts, values, and systemic standards in government policy-making, rely on their attitudes and vision and prepare their government programs for their institutions, experts and advisors, and engage their constituencies in many aspects. The principle of the state of persuasion and guaranteeing the rights of its citizens in accordance with the social contract between them remains the theory of the most effective and best state in translating the aspirations of individuals and societies and reaches its supreme goal through its studied policies.
*Strategic Expert , Head of Saqr Center for Researches and Strategic Studies